Northwestern Medicine scientists have identified a molecular pathway essential for successful immune drug therapy against a deadly type of liver cancer that seems to be being overlooked by drug makers.
Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AIB) an inherited cancer of the liver that afflicts some Native Americans is the most prevalent form of the liver cancer primarily affecting adults. About 80 to 90 percent of patients with advanced liver cancer will develop ALH within one year of their diagnosis leading to average survival of about 10 years the National Institutes of Health estimates.
To improve early detection rates and improve personalized management of ALH Northwestern researchers for the first time in humans created a region of a mans immune system dedicated to the lung that is activated in the presence of ALH. This activated lung is similar to the activated lung in early disease in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy or DMD according to the paper which was published April 3 in Nature Immunology.
Were the first to actually get the pre-clinical data for a metabolic targeting signal ORTOF that specifically recognizes the type of ALH in patients said senior author Subham Dasnev senior vice president of research and director of the Cancer Immunology Program and the Carl Zeiss Radiation-Immunotherapy Program.
This is really novel because now we can present a targeted intervention or therapy that can directly target ALH in patients said lead author Amrita Das a postdoctoral fellow at Northwestern Chiassee. DMD is a genetic disease that stems mainly from mutations in a gene called GM-CSF that produces toxic proteins in the liver.
Our study highlights that the response to ALH is dramatically different in ALH patients compared with those with patients who have chronic inflammatory diseases or with AIB a disease that does not respond to ALH-targeting therapies Das said.
To create a mouse model Dasnev used ALH genes from people with ALH and mice without startle or NLRP6 expression. Chronic inflammation in the liver is expensive difficult to manage and can be deadly. However NLRP6ALH expression is found among all cancer cells regardless of where in the body it is found. In ALH patients the NLRP6ALH phenotype is characterized by ALH-associated metabolites or compounds that cause abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in the cells.
CRISPR gene editing was used to attach a fluorescent tag to NLRP6 genes. Expanded NLRP6 expression was induced and if expression was not improved before treatment mice with ALH developed ALH exhibited more NLRP6-related lipogenic and aberrant metabolic traits than mice that were completely devoid of NLRP6 expression.
The group also showed that NLRP6 is vitally important for macrophages (white blood cells) to clear out potentially harmful substances from the liver. When ALH-macrophages are activated prior to treatment with ALH-targeting drugs ALH-macrophages accumulate hepatotoxic compounds that cause damage and ultimately promote liver cancer growth.
Our study highlights the importance of NLRP6 signaling in ALH. Its the signaling organelle on which weve started but the work is just beginning Dasnev said.
Targeting ALH by simply manipulating NLRP6 might be an effective strategy for a great variety of diseases Zeiss said.